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CHRONOLOGY 1991 - 2000

The NCWP hosts the 6th Annual Leadership Development Conference at the Riviera Resort & Racquet Club in Palm Springs, California from April 4th - April 8th. The conference was the largest NCWP event ever, bringing together over 800 women and men from over 40 states and 5 different countries for 4 days of training, education, and networking. The conference was held in partnership with the non-profit organization Women in Federal Law Enforcement.
The NCWP launches a series of 2-day training sessions on ways for law enforcement agencies to recruit and hire more women. Trainings are sponsored by local police agencies and have been held in Sacramento and Los Angeles, with upcoming trainings in Maryland, Florida and New York during the Fall of 2001.
The National Center for Women and Policing releases their latest publication, The Self-Assessment Guide for Law Enforcement, which was developed under a grant from the Bureau of Justice Assistance. The Self-Assessment Guide is an innovative tool for law enforcement agencies to evaluate and change their current practices related to hiring, retaining and promoting women police officers.
Over the last nine years, the representation of women in sworn law enforcement ranks has increased by 5.3%, with 14.3% of all sworn officers in 1999 being women, says the National Center for Women and Policing's third annual report. However, at this rate of increase, it will take several generations to achieve equality in the police force. Barriers to women in policing include biased entry exams, recruitment policies that favor men, and widespread discrimination on the job.
FMF and its National Center for Women and Policing are featured on the television news show, "60 Minutes." NCWP Director Chief Penny Harrington and FMF National Coordinator Katherine Spillar are interviewed in a report on police family violence in the Los Angeles Police Department, currently under fire in the midst of an unfolding scandal. Less than one-fifth of the LAPD is female, and Spillar and Harrington argue that "introducing significantly greater numbers of women to the force would improve police response to violence against women."
An impressive array of more than 500 women law enforcement leaders gathers for the National Center for Women and Policing's (NCWP) fifth annual conference, in conjunction with Feminist Expo 2000. The conference draws the largest crowd to date, with law enforcement agencies from 42 states and the District of Columbia, the Australian Council of Women and Policing, the British Association of Women Police and the European Network of Policewomen. The conference focuses on the urgent need for increasing the numbers of women in the ranks of law enforcement.
Male officers in the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) are involved in excessive force and misconduct lawsuits at rates substantially higher than their female counterparts, according to an FMF and National Center for Women and Policing study. The new report shows that the LAPD, currently in the midst of a scandal involving police domestic violence, false charges against citizens, and cover-up of police corruption, paid out $63.4 million in lawsuits involving male officers for use of excessive force, sexual assault, and domestic violence, compared to $2.8 million for female officers in excessive force lawsuits. The dollar value of payouts in cases of excessive force and misconduct involving male LAPD officers exceeded that of payouts involving female officers by a ratio of 23:1. And, male officers made up an even higher proportion of miscreants in lawsuit payouts involving killings (43:1) and assault and battery (32:1). Over the same period, male officers serving in a patrol capacity outnumbered women officers on patrol by a much lower ratio of only 4:1. FMF/NCWP's cutting-edge research highlights the importance of gender-balancing law enforcement units nationwide.

The Feminist Majority Foundation's National Center for Women and Policing issues its first annual report, "Equality Denied: The Status of Women in Policing, 1997." The first-of-its-kind report reveals that fewer than 12% of sworn officers nationwide are women, and that women are poorly represented in top-command positions. Calling on law enforcement to gender balance its ranks, NCWP Director Penny Harrington says, "Research shows that women police officers have fewer excessive-use-of-force complaints against them, and are better at dealing with domestic violence situations."

The Feminist Majority Foundation's National Center for Women and Policing holds its third annual conference, drawing over 450 women law enforcement officials from 46 states. The conference features a special session on reducing anti-abortion clinic violence.

National Center for Women in Policing holds second annual conference with 350 women police officers.

Penny Harrington, Director of the National Center for Women & Policing; Katherine Spillar, National Coordinator for the Feminist Majority; Keynote Speaker Brigadier General Evelyn Foote; Feminist Majority Foundation President Eleanor Smeal


A panel of feminist mystery authors opens the second annual National Center for Women and Policing conference. From left to right, Jennifer Jackman, Feminist Majority Foundation Director of Policy and Research, introduces authors Laurie R. King, Susan Dunlap, and Annette Meyers.

NEW INITIATIVE -- Feminist Majority Foundation launches National Center for Women and Policing directed by Penny Harrington, formerly the first woman chief of police of a major U.S. city -- Portland, Oregon. The National Center works to build a nationwide movement for dramatically increasing the numbers of women in all areas and levels of law enforcement as an effective strategy for reducing police brutality and improving police response to domestic violence -- which is the single largest cause of injury to women in the U.S..

Chief Penny Harrington, Director of the FMF's National Center for Women and Policing, testifies about gender bias in the police force before the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights


1994 - Gender Balance motions to Los Angeles City Council

1993 - Women's Advisory Committee to the Los Angeles Police Commission Gender Balance motions - Los Angeles City Council

1992 - Testimony of Katherine Spillar before the Police Commission

1991 - Rodney King beating Press conference - Ellie Smeal and Katherine Spillar make statements.

Testimony of Katherine Spillar before the Christopher Commission



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